The goal of this page is to offer written evidence on centuries old Serb presence in Kosovo and Metohia - the cradle of our culture and spirituality. We do not intend to underestimate the achievements of others but only to prove that eradication of the Serbian people and our culture in Kosovo is an attack on the overall European cultural heritage and tradition. History is a very important clue to understanding of the deep complexity of the Kosovo crisis although it may be a serious obstacle for future of Kosovo communities if it is not overcome by genuine development of democracy and civil society appropriate for the time in which we live..
Kosovo and Metohia, two central regions of perennial Serbia, are the very essence of Serbian spiritual, cultural identity and statehood since Middle Ages to date. Fertile and clement planes of Kosovo with mild climate, and reach in water resources, with high mountain chains bordering with Albania have been good-blessed environment for a fruitful development of the highest achievements in all fields in medieval Serbia. The cultural and demographic strength of the Serbs is best illustrated by the presence of 1.500 monuments of Serbian culture identified so far. Numerous outstanding noble Serbian families used to live in these regions, as families Brankovic, Hrebeljanovic, Music, Vojinovic, some of which were the inceptors of Serbian dynasties.
A great number of noble castles existed all over Kosovo with rich aristocratic life going on inside their walls. They were also meeting places of Serbian nobility and centers where important political and other decisions have been taken and places attended by foreign envoys and outstanding guests from noble foreign ruling families. Here are some of famous medieval castles: Svrcin, Pauni, Nerodimlja, Stimlje and many others. In Svrcin, for example, the famous Serbian Emperor Dusan was first crowned king in 1331, and Pauni, famous for its beauty, were favored place of king Milutin. In Pauni in 1342 Serbian Emperor Dusan had received Jovan VI Kantakuzin, one of the pretenders to the Byzantine throne at that time. Nerodimlja, with the fortress of Petric over the castle, was favorite residence of Stevan Decanski.It is in the Stimlje castle that king Uros issued his charges. In Ribnik, near Prizren, were the castles of Serbian Emperors Dusan and Uros.
The Serbian elite and minor nobility has built in these regions hundreds of smaller chapels and several dozens of monumental Christian monasteries. Some of them have been preserved to date, such as Patriarchy of Pec (since 1346 site of the Serbian Patriarch), Decani, Gracanica, Bogorodica Ljeviska, Banjska, Sveti Arhandjeli near Prizren and others. Serbian churches and monasteries had been for centuries owners of great complexes of fertile land. Metohia, the name originated from the Greek word metoh means church land. Highly developed economic life was an integral part of a high level of civilization attained in medieval Serbia. Prizren, for example, was a famous economic and commercial center, with developed silk production, fine crafts, and numerous settlements where the merchants from Kotor and Dubrovnik had their houses, and in 14 century, Prizren was the site of the consul from Dubrovnik for the whole Serbian State. And many other commercial centers such as Pristina, Pec, Hoca, Vucitrn, testify of the strength of highly developed economic life in these regions. Famous mining center were Trepca, Novo Brdo and Janjevo, out of which in the 15 century Novo Brdo had become one of the most important mining centers of the Balkans. Silver and gold were exported to the big European centers in great quantities. The Serbian society of the Middle Ages was in all respects identical to European social, economic and cultural developments of that time, much more integrated in Europe then it may seem when analyzed from the later perspective.
Turkish invasion means a fatal turning point in Serbian history in the second half of the 15 century. As known from history, the advance of the Turks towards Europe was a rather slow process. Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic and Serbian nobility in the famous battle of Kosovo in 1389 did everything humanly possible to stop the Turkish invasion toward south eastern Europe. It was not only a clash of two armies led by their rulers Serbian prince Lazar and Turkish sultan Murat (who both perished in the battle of Kosovo), but also a clash of two civilizations, one Christian and European and other Islamic and Asiatic. Later on, in Serbian national conscience the battle of Kosovo has acquired mythical dimension of a crucial historical event, greatly affecting the consequence destiny of the whole Serbian nation. The Serbian epic poetry is very rich and the cycle of poems devoted to Kosovo are a pearl of that treasure and moral and psychological support to Serbian people during the centuries of forendous slavery under the Turks till the 19 century, and speaking of Kosovo and Metohia till 1912, when they were finally liberated from the Turks. This is the reason why in Serbian national poetry we find such a great number of representatives of Serbian nobility, of Serbian castles and outstanding Serbian monasteries from Kosovo and Metohia. Prizren, from example, in our national poetry is called the "Serbian Constantinople". All topics connected with Kosovo are symbols of a high medieval civilizational level of the Serbian society and culture, its aristocratic wealth and glamour on the one hand, and on the other the fall of that civilization due to the violent and cruel blow of the Ottoman invaders.
The Turkish invasion of south eastern Europe and the Serbian lands as its part, have not only brought about the fall of Christian civilization, but are also responsible for the destruction of all social structures, the elimination of the Serbian elite and the destruction of the most outstanding cultural achievements. One part of Serbian nobility was killed, one part expelled to Asia, one part forced to take up Islam, and one part managed to emigrate north, west and across the Adriatic to Italy. Average people deprived from its leaders had no option but to stick to the traditional national values. It is thanks to the Orthodox Church which managed to revive its work in 1557 (renewal of the Patriarchy of Pec), that Serbian people kept alive the awareness of the medieval national state and high achievements of its civilization. Many medieval castles and towns were destroyed, many churches were raised to the ground , and some of them turn into the mosques. At the beginning of the 17 century, Sveti Arhandjeli (where emperor Dusan was buried), the monumental mausoleum of Emperor Dusan was totally destroyed, and the precious polished stone out of which the church was built was used for building the Sinan-pasa mosque, sill existing in Prizren to date. Bogorodica Ljeviska, the monumental legacy of King Milutin, in 1756 was turned into the mosque and only after the First World War it was again restored into a Christian church. Turkish invasion and the consequences of their conflict with Christian Europe, particularly since the siege of Wienna in 1683, had considerably changed the ethnic and demographic picture of that part of Serbia. The orthodox Serbs were the absolute majority population until the end of the 17 century, and before the First Migration of the Serbs in 1690, due to the defeat of the Christian Europe in the conflict with the Turks and the participation of the Serbs in that conflict of the side of Christian Europe.The Turks settled in towns, and the Albanians (at that time called Sqipetars) coming from the mountains of northern Albania of today started settling in smaller groups on Serbian land in bordering regions of Metohia.
Until the 18th century, there are no Sqipetars* (now called Albanians) in Kosovo and Metohia in bigger agglomerations. Actually, they began settling in this region in greater numbers only in the 18th and 19th century from today’s northern Albania. In addition to the newly settled Sqipetars (now called Albanians) who were mostly Muslims or converted to Islam soon after settling in Kosovo, it is also the islamization of the Serbs that brought about great changes in the cultural environment of this region. Many of islamized Serbs gradually fused with predominantly Albanian Moslems and adopted their culture and even language. At the beginning of the second half of the 19th century, the Turks also settled Cherkeses in this region. Despite of all these artificial demographic changes, Orthodox Serbs decreased for almost 50% of the total population living in Kosovo and Metohia. In the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century the Serbian middle class in Prizren, Pec, Pristina and other towns was the main driving force of the urban and economic development of the region . The news paper "Prizren" was published both in Serbian and Turkish language. In 1871 the Orthodox Theological School was founded in Prizren by Sima Igumanov. During the eighties and nineties a great number of new schools, cultural institutions and banks were founded.
It is during the Second World War, that the most drastic changes in the demographic picture of Kosovo took place. In Kosovo and Metohija the Albanian nationalists got free hand to terrorize the Serbs. Under such pressure estimated 75,000 Serbs left Kosovo. In their empty houses about the same number of Albanians from Albania settled. This definitelly tipped the ballance in the Albanian favour. The first official census in post-WWII Yugoslavia (in 1948) showed 199,961 Serbs and Montenegrins in Kosovo and 498,242.
After the Second World War, As a result of unbelievable demographic explosion Albanian population in Kosovo doubled by 1971. The official Yugoslav census for that year shows 916,168 Albanians living in Kosovo, while Serb and Montenegrin population reached only to number 259,819. This demographic trend clearly demonstrates that the theory of Serb repression over Albanians after the WWII is absolutely not correct. The truth is that the Commnist authorities favorized the Albanians on the expense of Serbs allowing uncontrolled settlement of Albanian immingrants and tolerating different methods of ethnic discrimination over the Serbs which made more and more Serbs leave the province and seek better life in Central Serbia. By 1990ies more than 800 settlements in which Serbs lived with Albanians became ethnically clean Albanian villages.
In an attempt to prevent the secession of Kosovo and Metohija Serbian government in 1990 abolished Kosovo Albanian authonomy. A failure of Milosevic government to develop true democratic institutions instead and using the police methods to prevent Albanian secession even more increased ethnic Albanian wish to cut of from Serbia. When the KLA rebels began attacks on Serbs in 1998 the Government brought the army and police to put the rebellion down. In the course of the civil war - 1998-1999 which ended by the NATO intervention against Yugoslavia more than 500.000 Kosovo Albanians fled the province to Macedonia and Albania. After the war, despite the international presence, KLA organized persecutions of Serb population and more than 200.000 Serbs fled Kosovo and Metohija. Only 90.000 Serbs remained living in total isolation, dispersed in several KFOR protected Serb enclaves.
Kosovo and Metohija - Clash of Civilizations, Religions and Mentalities
Between Serb and Albanian - Between Christian and Moslem world
Serb Orthodox Cathedral and a Moslem Mosque in Urosevac, Kosovo
Moslem Albanians, both from Albania proper and Kosovo, were the strongest
supporters of the Ottoman Moslem rule in the Balkans and gave dozens of pashas and veziers.
"Kosovo (and Metohia) is the native and ancestral land of the Serbs. It encompasses an area of some 10,800 square kilometers and is considered to be the Serbian Jerusalem. Almost all of the great historical Serbian monasteries, churches and fortresses are located in this province. Kosovo is the scene of the famous battle fought on St. Vitas Day (June 28) in 1389, when Serbian Prince Lazar and the Turkish emir Murad both lost their lives. The Ottoman’s breakthrough into the heart of Southeast Europe following Serbia’s defeat at Kosovo marked the beginning of the five centuries long clash between Christianity and the Islamic World. This struggle continues to this day, and its most visible manifestation is the struggle between the Serbs, mainly Orthodox Christians, and the ethnic Albanians, mainlyMuslims." Dusan T. Batakovic Kosovo and Metohija a clash of Civilizations
Kosovo in the History of the Serbian People by Veselin Kesich - an essay which explains what is the place of Kosovo in the history of the Serbs and why is it so important for them.Serbian Church in History By Very Reverend Dr. Radomir Popovic A detailed survey of the history of the Serbian Orthodox Church with catalogues of Saints, Archbishops and Patriarchs. Serbian Orthodox Church has played a major role in the of the Serbian people and the Balkans in general.
History of Yugoslavia - a concise survey of the history of Yugoslavia. The special focus is on the history of Serbia.
History of Yugoslavia - another text on the history of Serbia and Montenegro (based on Encyc. Britanica)
History of the Serbs - a text from the CountryWatch.com Site - an overview of the history of the Serbian people.
Early Medieval History of Serbia (until 1321) from the Ilustrated History of the Serbs - other chapters are being translated into English - A detailed presentation of the Serbian early medieval history with illustrations.
History of Albania - a short survey of the Albanian history
Celekula - The Tower of Skulls in Nis
A tower in which Turkish pasha used skulls of Christian Serbs as a building material
History of Ottoman Moslem rule in Serbia gives a quite different picture compared to the attempts
of some modern Western historians, like Malcolm, who tend to picture it as an age of tolerance
and peaceful coexistence between Christians and Muslims in the Balkans.
The Spiritual and Cultural Heritage of Kosovo and Metohia
Two important essays explaining an important link between the history of Kosovo and Metohija, its medieval art and spirituality. This link in its depth contains the innermost treasure of the Serbian national and religious identity.
ANALYSES OF THE KOSOVO PROBLEM
THROUGH THE PRISM OF ITS COMPLEX HISTORY
Kosovo Crisis - Origins and History , By Carl Savich
Kosovo - Story Behind Story - An article analysing the present Kosovo situation through the prism of centuries old conflict between Christians and Muslims.
Kosovo and Metohija - Serb-Albanian Conflict Prof. Dr. Dusan T. Batakovic - Centuries long conflict of two peoples is not only ethnic, but religious, cultural and civilizational conflict.
Kosovo Problem in the Western press in the eighties - A collection of newspaper articles which show quite a different approach to Kosovo problem.
Why Kosovo - The Anatomy of the Needles War by. Bob Allen - An alternative view of a needless war in Kosovo and Metohija.
Kosovo Problem and the International Community - by Diana Johnston
Kosovo Crisis - A text by the Serbian Information Centre in London focusing on the complicated historical circumstance which precceeded the outburst of the conflict.
A Look At Albanian Nationalism and KLA By John C. Sigler III
Kosovo Dateline - Kosovo events throughout the history.
The Kosovo Legacy, by Thomas Emmert - "One of the main characteristics of Kosovo is the idea of a conscious, willing sacrifice for noble ideals, a sacrifice of one individual for the benefit of the rest, a sacrifice now for the sake of a better future. According to popular understanding which developed in our folk literature, the Battle of Kosovo was not an event in which it was possible to win or lose. It was rather a conscious, heroic sacrifice. A slave is only half a man; a freeman is similar to God."
The church of St. Savior in Prizren, 14th century, one of many valuable
Serb Orthodox monuments of the city
Kosovo and Metohija Under Turkish Rule Dusan T. Batakovic - In our times many historians are trying to idealize so called Pax Ottomana as a period of tolerance and peace. In fact the experience of the Balkan Christian people with Islam is quite different. The new religion of the Arabian prophet only brought discords, suffering, cultural and intellectual deterioration to the entire area.
Foreign travellers visit Old Serbia during the Turkish ruleFrom Pec to Novi Pazar - an extract from the picturesque travelogue by a Russian 19th century traveler Alexander Fyodorovich Gilferding. Gilferding is focusing especially on the position of the second-class Serb Christian population in a priviledged Albanian-Turkish Moslem community.
Pec /Albanian and Turkish: Ipek, is quite a big city. It has been estimated that around 4.000 Moslem and 800 Christian families live there. From the latter, a few households belong to the Roman-Catholic church. The Moslems and Catholics are Albanians, and the Orthodox are Serbs. The majority of the Serbs can speak the Albanian language. The Moslems move about armed constantly, while the Christians are forbidden to wear arms in the city. They are usually exposed to various insults and oppressions. The Pec monks go in the bazaar unwillingly during the day time, especially on a bazaar day, and when there are a lot of people. If on those days monks have to go through the city, they avoid crowded streets, and sometimes they take a road round a settlement. Christian women wear white kerchiefs, the same as the Turkish women do. If they didn't do so, they would be exposed to humiliation and insults in the streets. It was really unusual to see a group of ostensibly Turkish women, with kerchiefs on their heads, enter a church and cross themselves. But, the Albanian women in villages do not cover their heads, and they walk bareheaded, like the Moslem women.
Alexander Fedorovich Gilferding
Visit to Visoki Decani Monastery in 1859
Through the Land of the Serbs - travelogue by Mary Edith Durham who travelled around Serbia and Montenegro in the beginning of the XXth century. We are presenting two extracts covering her visit to "Old Serbia" - Pec and Decani, with picturesque impressions from the monasteries and contacts with the people.
Sinan Pasha burns the relics of St. Sava at Vracar, Belgrade, 1594
The story of Old Serbia is one of uninterrupted misery. The suffering of the Christian peoples in the Balkans is no new thing. It began with the advent of the Turk, and will continue while he remains. As long ago as 1690 the intolerable lot of the Serbs of Old Serbia induced no less than 37,000 zadrugas (family groups, including uncles and cousins) to migrate to Hungary. The Albanians then spread over the vacated lands, which they have been permitted to harry with impunity ever since. A small unarmed Christian population "regulated" by Albanians is not merely unable to rise, it is unable to cry loudly enough to be heard, and there was no foreign consul to make reports. It was not until the Russians (who with extraordinary diplomatic skill lose no opportunity of winning the love of the Slavs of the Balkans) forced Stcherbina into Mitrovitza in 1902 that any light was shed upon the condition of this hapless land. The Albanians promptly shot him. The Christians regard him as the man that died to save them, and cherish his portrait. Until Stcherbina came they lived in a state of terror, and all that the tax-gatherers spared the Albanians looted. Owing to his death, the Government had sent the Nizams to subdue the Albanians.
Pilgrimage to Devic Monastery - another text by Edit Durham with impressions from her visit to the Monastery of Devic during a religious celebration - sabor.
Around Kosovo - a text by Mary E. Durham in which she describes the city of Prizren and her travel from Prizren to Gracanica and Mitrovica.
Old Serbia and Grachanitsa Rebecca West - from the book: Black Lamb and Grey Falcon
Kossovo speaks only of its defeats. It is true that they were nullified by the Serbs of Serbia, who snatched their own liberty from the Turks under the leadership of Karageorge and Milosh Obrenovitch in the early nineteenth century, and pressed on, against the hostility· of the great powers, until they gave liberty to Old Serbia and Macedonia in the Balkan wars. But of this triumph Kossovo says nothing, for the battle which gave it to the Serbs in 1912 was fought not there but at Kumanovo, some miles to the south-east; and even after that it knew defeat again, for here the retreating Serbian Army was bombed by German aeroplanes as they fled towards the Albanian border, and though they pursued their enemies across it when they returned three years later it was without spectacular event. Here is the image of failure, so vast that it fills the eye as failure sometimes fills as individual life, an epoch.
Changing of Kosovo's Identity
a method of Kosovo's nation-builders
Various texts and studies
History of the territory of today's Kosovo prior to the rule of Nemanjic Dunasty- an extract from the book by Miranda Vickers "Between the Serb and Albanian"
Serbian Medieval History - - Serbian medieval History on the server of the Serbian Unity Congress, USA
RASTKO PROJECT ELECTRONIC LIBRARY The Culture of Kosovo and MetohijaValuable texts on Serb Orthodox culture in Kosovo and Metohia onlineThe Spirit of the Serb by R.W. Seton-Watson and Serbia, by R.W. Seton-Watson Two essays by R.W. Seton-Watson a well-known British historian and expert for studies of Middle and Southeastern Europe.
(complete Internet editons)
The Kosovo Chronicles by Dusan Batakovic (1992) /the complete Internet edition/ Book on history and nature of Serbo-Albanian relationship, by famous Balkans historian. Essential reading!
The Kosovo Question: Past and Present by Dimitrije Bogdanovic (1985) Summary of a book by renowned Serbian historian, published by Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
"Today Kosovo has become a general term denoting a complex problem in which history is being faced with our reality. Two neighbouring Balkan peoples, the Serbs and Albanians, are weighted down with antagonisms which have been accumulating over the past three hundred years. The problem cannot simply be reduced to the legal constitutional status of the Autonomous Province of Kosovo nor to the position of the Yugoslav Albanians. On the contrary, it is far more a question of the survival and position of the entire Serbian nation - in Kosovo, in Yugoslavia, in the Balkans"
The Balkan Geopolitical Knot and the Serbian Question (Characteristics and Importance of the Geographical Position of the Balkan Peninsula) by Jovan Ilic (From Serbian Question in the Balkans, University of Belgrade, 1995.)
The Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija / the complete Internet edition / Life of Kosovo Serbs under the Albanian dominated Kosovo autonomy prior to Milosevic
The Battle of Kosovo (Serbian Medieval Epic Poems) /the complete Internet edition/ The Battle of Kosovo cycle of heroic ballads is generally considered the finest work of Serbian folk poetry. Translated by John Matthias and Vladeta Vuckovic
Kosovo Origins by Hugo Roth /the complete Internet edition/ A comprehensive historical overview of the Kosovo problem. The goal of this valuable study is to help better understanding of Serb-Albanian relations through the history.
Kosovo by William Dorich /the complete Internet edition/ Another valuable historical study of the Kosovo and Metohija history. The author offeres an anthology of texts important for better understanding of the Kosovo problem.
The Saga Of Kosovo by Alex Dragnich & Slavko Todorovich /the complete Internet edition/ An elaborated historical analysis of the complicated Serb-Albanian relations during the last several centuries. The book covers the contemporary history until 1984. A rich catalogue of select bibliography.
Noel Malcolm - Kosovo - A Short History
history written with an attempt to support Albanian territorial claims in the Balkans
NEWS FROM KOSOVO AND METOHIJA
ERPKIM Info-Service Mailing
The views expressed by the authors of newspaper articles or other texts which are not official communiqués or news reports by the Diocese are their own and do not necessarily represent the views of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Our Newsletter archive is available on our ERP KIM Info-service Web-Page:
ERP KIM Info-Service
Serbian Orthodox Church - History Short history of the Serbian Orthodox Church with additional links, texts and photo galleries
The Serbian Church During the Years of Kosovo Hardships - A text by Dimitrije Bogdanovic focusing on the suffering of the Serb Orthodox Church amidst the century long conflict between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo.
The Kosovo Battle
The Battle of Kosovo - Serbian Medieval Epic Poems Translated by John Mattias and Vladeta Vuckovic
Serbian Medieval Epic Poetry (Battle of Kosovo) translated into English by Helen Rootham (ed. 1920)
Kosovo-Battle - History and its Importance - Who was St. Prince Lazar and what is the meaning of the Kosovo battle in the Serbian history of Kosovo and Metohija?
The Kosovo Field, June 15, 1389 Sima Cirkovic - A historic essay covering the events before, during and after the Kosovo battle in detail.
God-pleasing Work of Jihadd - Idris Bitlisi, the Turkish 16th century chronicle describes the events of Kosovo Battle
Rises and Falls of the Serbian Statehood in the Middleages - by S. Cirkovic - the author makes an analysis of the turbulet period of the medieval Serbian history.
Old Serbia and Albanians a group of authors from the Historical Institute of the Serb Academy of Sciences and Arts, Belgrade
Memorial Tower at the site of Kosovo Battle
Greater Kosovo as a prerequisite for Greater Albania
Status of Kosovo Province - between substantial autonomy and independence
Albanian Ethnic Cleansing of Old Serbia by Slavenko Terzic - text on our Site - Historical analysis of the demographic changes in Old Serbia which were a direct consequence of the Albanian expansion and violence on the expense of the Christian Serb population.
Kosovo Serbian Issue and the Greater Albania Project by Slavenko Terzic
Greater Albania, by Tim Judah, New York Review of Books - The West had created a monster. Yes, we had severed the head of Greater Serbia only to discover that Balkan nationalism is hydra-headed. In its place we now stood confronted by the evil specter of rabid, expansionist Albanian nationalism, which aimed to create either a Greater Albania or at least a Greater Kosovo.....The prerequisite to creating a Greater Kosovo including parts of Macedonia or a Greater Albania has, of course, to be an independent Kosovo.
Greater Albania explained, Carl Savich
a map froma site of Albanian nationalists. In reality Historical Greater Albanian never existed in its history and is only a projection of greater Albanian hegemonism on expense of Serbia-Montenegro, Macedonia and Greece
Status of Kosovo Province
The Ever-Changing Features of the Kosovo Issue by Thanos Veremis - "Would an independent Kosovo constitute the beginning of stabilisation of the western Balkans and the end of Western worries in the region? Anyone who is remotely aware of the Prizren Declaration of 1878 and the subsequent attempts of the Kosovo Albanians to prevent Montenegro from acquiring its Adriatic outlet and later the march of Albanian forces into Skopje in 1912, will desist from the optimism of considering Kosovar independence the end of history and therefore of irredentism in the region."
Kosovo's Forseeable Future Decided, by Tim Judah - "Hashim Thaci, the former political head of the Kosovo Liberation Army, KLA, now the head of the Democratic Party of Kosovo, railed that the constitutional framework "holds hostage the issue of independence". He is absolutely right. The failure of Kosovo Albanian leaders to make a credible stand against violence against Serbs and other minorities, together with the connections between certain circles of the Kosovo Albanian elite and the leaderships of the Albanian insurgencies in the Presevo valley and Macedonia, mean that the foreign diplomats and politicians charged with dealing with Kosovo do not trust its politicians."
Kosovo Liberation Army - Freedom Fighters or... A large database of different articles, studies and analyses on the Kosovo Liberation Army, its origins, war and post-war history. The goal of this page is to prove that this is not a genuine movement of freedom fighters but a highly morally corrupted organization which is very dangerous for the regional stability. Despite its official disbandment in Sept 1999 it continues its existence through the Kosovo Protection Corps as well as different sattelite organizations like NLA, UCKPBM, ANA etc, which are responsible for exporting the terrorism to the territory of Southern Serbia and FYROM.
Kosovo: Peace Now By Tim Judah, New York Review of Books - But are people like Mr. Thaci suitable candidates for coddling by Western diplomats and politicians? All sorts of charges have been leveled against the KLA. These include accusations that they are drug smugglers and, recently, that they have executed political opponents and dissenters. Certainly the KLA has taken money from the Kosovo Albanian mafia but this does not make the KLA, per se, a drug-smuggling organization. Besides, whatever outsiders may think and say, most Kosovo Albanians see it as their liberation army.
The Kosovo and Metohija Problem and the Regional Security in the Balkansby Predrag Simic. The main obstacle to the commencement of a Serb-Albanian dialogue, despite certain encouraging signs, is the overwhelming radicalism of the ethnic Albanians whose political parties are still not ready to give up the idea of an "independent state of Kosovo" and a "Greater Albania" which would have the same consequences for the security of the Balkans and of Europe as would the creation of a "Greater Croatia", a "Greater Serbia" or a "Greater Bulgaria".
Historical Institute of the Serbian Academy of Sciences The site with lots of additional links.
Old Serbia Throughout the Ages, compiled by Igor Malinovski - the author presents a number of historical inscriptions which bear witness of the centuries old Serb presence on the territory of today's Macedonia
Fate of the Serbian Cultural Heritage (13-20c) - Milan Ivanovic - A text in which the author is trying to find what happened to Serbian medieval treasuries and libraries in subsequent historical periods.
More about Kosovo Albanian Nazism during the WW2 Collection of texts and analyses focusing on the problem of Nazism among Kosovo Albanians during the WW2
Black Lamb and Grey Falcon : A Journey Through Yugoslavia (Amazon.com) - a classic "West wrote on the brink of World War II, when she was "already convinced of the inevitability of the second Anglo-German war." The resulting book is colored by that impending conflict, and by West's search for universals amid the complex particulars of Balkan history. In the end, she saw the region's doom--and our own--in a double infatuation with sacrifice, the "black lamb and grey falcon" of her title. It's the story of Abraham and Isaac without the last-minute reprieve: those who hate are all too ready to martyr the innocent in order to procure their own advantage, and the innocent themselves are all too eager to be martyred. To West, in 1941, "the whole world is a vast Kossovo, an abominable blood-logged plain." Unfortunately, little has happened since then to prove her wrong. --Mary Park Extract: Old Serbia (*Kosovo)
Serb medieval coin from Kosovo
Texts, Articles and Analyses - a Web site of our eminent historian (now an ambassador of Yugoslavia in Athens. Prof. Batakovic has always shown special interest in the history of Kosovo and Metohija
The Serbs of Kosovo and Metohija War, International Protectorate and National Catastrophe By Dusan T. Batakovic
Religion and War in Yugoslavia, by David Jovanovic - the author is exploring a controversial link between religion and wars on the territory of former Yugoslavia
War, Journalism and Propaganda Analysis of Media Coverage in Bosnian and Kosovo wars by Carl K Savich - Truth is one of the first victims in a war.
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo - A view from the other side by Carl K Savich - Kosovo problem did not begin with Milosevic and it has its deep roots in the Ottoman times when Kosovo Albanians as priviledged Moslem population slowly began to push the Christian Serb population out of their ancestral lands.
Kosovo Forum - B92 - A collection of different articles by international, Serb and Albanian authors on the post-war situation in Kosovo and Metohija
Centuries of Serb Suffering in Kosovo and Metohija - a photo-gallery on the Web Server of Srpska Mreza (Serbian - Network)
JASENOVAC - Concentration Camp (1941-1945)
The Suffering and Martyrdom of the Serbs in Croatia under the Croatian Ustashi fascist regime in WW2. Exibition in the Museum of Holocaust, Washington D.C.
Jasenovac system of death camps - another Site covering the tragic history of Jasenovac death camp.
New image of post-Milosevic Serbia - With Christian faith and tradition
in modern Europe and the world
Serbian Royal Family back in country - Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia, Princess Catharina,
Princes: Peter, Philip and Alexander in front of Old Court in Belgrade
Royal Family Website